A wide variety of motion preservation devices may be used as alternatives or adjuncts to spinal fusion surgery when treating symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease or facet pain from osteoarthritis. These devices may include interspinous process spacers (such as the X-STOP) that distract or open the central canal and foramen; posterior dynamic stabilization devices (comprised of screws, cords, rods and/or spacers) that allow for controlled motion and more movement of the spine; and facet replacement or total element replacement devices that respectively replace the facet joints or all of the elements in the back of the spine with the goal of limiting or controlling motion. Many of the motion preservation devices are still under investigation and not yet commercially available.

In this ISASS Guide for Patients:

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